Terms of reference

The Review is commissioned by, and will report to, the UK Prime Minister. The Review is supported in its work by the UK Department of Health, HM Treasury, and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, but it operates autonomously of government control. The Wellcome Trust is providing funding towards the Review’s work, and hosts the review team at its London headquarters.

The Chair of the Review, Jim O’Neill, has full freedom to establish the Review’s priorities, activities and programme of work, subject to the Terms of Reference set out below.

The Review on AMR will:

  1. Examine and boost awareness of the economic issues surrounding the development, spread and containment of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), with a particular focus on making recommendations and building support for action at an international level to rectify the present low levels of investment in research and development of new antimicrobial drugs.
  2. As a particular focus, collect, analyse and promote evidence regarding:
    1. the potential micro- and macroeconomic impacts of a failure to adequately contain the spread of antimicrobial resistance globally;
    2. the economics underlying all stages of the development of new antimicrobials and their use and regulation, with a particular emphasis on antibiotics;
    3. the extent to which investment in research and development of new antimicrobials is inhibited by market failure and, where this does occur, its nature;
    4. the range of interventions which could be made by governments and other funders in the short, medium and long-term to simulate investment in new antimicrobials for human use, learning from and, where appropriate, emulating comparable initiatives already in place internationally
  3. Commission and/or undertake new research on the above issues as necessary.
  4. Explore the options for action at an international level by governments and by others to stimulate the development of new antimicrobial drugs for human use in a way which would be self-sustaining over the long-term and adequately balance the need for global conservation measures with accessibility for lower-income countries.
  5. Consider whether a workable package of international action is achievable, and make recommendations about such a package. These recommendations should be made in interim form by no later than August 2015, and include proposals as to the possible mechanisms and likely timeframes for implementation.
  6. Consult on these recommendations at an international level, working with international partners across disciplines and in high, middle and low-income countries. The objective will be to refine – and build a broad international consensus around – a workable package of globally coordinated actions. Final recommendations should be delivered by no later than August 2016.

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